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362                 HISTORY OF PERSIA                CHAP.
lives to save the eyes of a prince who was the glory of
Persia. Persians still remember the saying attributed to
the blinded Prince, " It is not my eyes which you have
put out, but those of Persia."
Rebellions in Persia, 1743-1744,—The repulse of
Nadir in Daghestan and the insecurity felt owing to his
increasing cruelty were the chief causes of three rebellions
which broke out in Shirwan, in Pars, and at Astrabad.
In Shirwan, a pretender named Sam, who claimed to be a
son of Shah Husayn, raised the country and with the aid
of the Lesghians defeated a body of two thousand troops.
Nadir detached a force of twenty-five thousand men,
which after much hard fighting drowned the rebellion in
blood. The Pretender was taken prisoner and deprived
of one eye, and then sent to Constantinople with the
following message : " Nadir disdains to take the life of
so despicable a wretch, although the c Grand Signior' has
espoused his cause."*
The trouble at Shiraz arose out of the failure of Taki
Khan, the Governor of Fars, in certain expeditions in the
Persian Gulf. Hearing that he was in consequence to be
sent a prisoner to the camp, he revolted, but an army of
eighteen thousand men captured Shiraz and crushed the
rebellion with awful severity. Taki Khan was taken
and deprived of one eye, and his relations were put to
death. The revolt of the Kajars of Astrabad will be
referred to when we come to the adventures of Hanway.
Mohamed Husayn Khan, their chief, was defeated by a
force of only fifteen hundred men, and the Astrabad
province was ruined by the executions and destruction
of property, of which Hanway gives a most graphic
The Last Campaign against Turkey > 1743-1745.—The
last campaign which Nadir fought against Turkey was
due to the Sultan's refusal to recognize the Jafar sect,
concerning which the following decision had been given
by the religious leaders : " It is permitted to kill and to
make prisoners of the people of Iran, and the new sect is
contrary to the true belief." The Persian monarch had
1 This is Hanway's account.   In the Jahangwka a different message is given.